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This article is the author's final published version in Cancers, Volume 14, Issue 17, Sept. 2022, Article Number 4305.

The published version is available at Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// 4.0/).


Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men. PCa cells require androgen receptor (AR) signaling for their growth and survival. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the preferred treatment for patients with locally advanced and metastatic PCa disease. Despite their initial response to androgen blockade, most patients eventually will develop metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Bone metastases are common in men with mCRPC, occurring in 30% of patients within 2 years of castration resistance and in >90% of patients over the course of the disease. Patients with mCRPC-induced bone metastasis develop lesions throughout their skeleton; the 5-year survival rate for these patients is 47%. Bone-metastasis-induced early changes in the bone that proceed the osteoblastic response in the bone matrix are monitored and detected via modern magnetic resonance and PET/CT imaging technologies. Various treatment options, such as targeting osteolytic metastasis with bisphosphonates, prednisone, dexamethasone, denosumab, immunotherapy, external beam radiation therapy, radiopharmaceuticals, surgery, and pain medications are employed to treat prostate-cancer-induced bone metastasis and manage bone health. However, these diagnostics and treatment options are not very accurate nor efficient enough to treat bone metastases and manage bone health. In this review, we present the pathogenesis of PCainduced bone metastasis, its deleterious impacts on vital organs, the impact of metastatic PCa on bone health, treatment interventions for bone metastasis and management of bone- and skeletal-related events, and possible current and future therapeutic options for bone management in the continuum of prostate cancer disease.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.



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