Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) and generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) are clinically distinct genetic entities of ectopic calcification associated with differentially reduced circulating levels of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a potent endogenous inhibitor of calcification. Variants in ENPP1, the gene mutated in GACI, have not been associated with classic PXE. Here we report the clinical, laboratory, and molecular evaluations of ten GACI and two PXE patients from five and two unrelated families registered in GACI Global and PXE International databases, respectively. All patients were found to carry biallelic variants in ENPP1. Among ten ENPP1 variants, one homozygous variant demonstrated uniparental disomy inheritance. Functional assessment of five previously unreported ENPP1 variants suggested pathogenicity. The two PXE patients, currently 57 and 27 years of age, had diagnostic features of PXE and had not manifested the GACI phenotype. The similarly reduced PPi plasma concentrations in the PXE and GACI patients in our study correlate poorly with their disease severity. This study demonstrates that in addition to GACI, ENPP1 variants can cause classic PXE, expanding the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of heritable ectopic calcification disorders. Furthermore, the results challenge the current prevailing concept that plasma PPi is the only factor governing the severity of ectopic calcification.
Ralph, Douglas; Nitschke, Yvonne; Levine, Michael A; Caffet, Matthew; Wurst, Tamara; Saeidian, Amir Hossein; Youssefian, Leila; Vahidnezhad, Hassan; Terry, Sharon F; Rutsch, Frank; Uitto, Jouni; and Li, Qiaoli, "ENPP1 variants in patients with GACI and PXE expand the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of heritable disorders of ectopic calcification." (2022). Department of Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 362.
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