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This article is the author’s final published version in CVIR Endovascular, Volume 4, Issue 1, December 2021, Article number 88.

The published version is available at Copyright © Shah et al.


Background: Idiopathic myointimal hyperplasia of the mesenteric vein (IMHMV) is a rare, often undiagnosed pathology affecting the colon. Patients typically present with severe abdominal pain and inflammation caused by smooth muscle proliferation of the veins, leading to arterialization, stenosis, and potential occlusion. The etiology remains unclear, but it has been hypothesized that an arteriovenous connection may be associated with the pathology. This is the first reported case indicating such an association. This case additionally highlights the potential utility of endovascular treatment, as endovascular embolization is generally a less invasive alternative to surgical resection in the treatment of such vascular disorders.

Case presentation: This report describes a 24-year-old female patient with findings of colitis and an abnormal arteriovenous connection of the inferior mesenteric arterial and venous systems. Partial embolization of this arteriovenous connection temporarily improved the patient's condition, but her symptoms ultimately returned due to the presence of multiple smaller feeder vessels not amenable to embolization, necessitating colonic resection for definitive treatment. Although prior reports have hypothesized that arterial pressurization of the veins may precipitate myointimal hyperplasia, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of IMHMV with an associated abnormal arteriovenous connection.

Conclusions: This case illustrates the possibility of an association between an arteriovenous connection and IMHMV. This rare diagnosis should be considered in patients with a similar presentation of abdominal pain after common etiologies like IBD have been excluded.

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