Document Type


Publication Date



In this second of a two-part essay (see Starr (2020a1) for part 1) a systems-informed discussion of learning leadership is presented. I review the components of a system which consist of inputs, transformation, outputs, feedback and contextual environment, and argue that from a system perspective learning leadership emerges from interactions among elements particularly contextual variables. The concept of context is expanded to include the theory of learning applied, i.e., pedagogy, andragogy or heutagogy, and the communication channel used, i.e., face-to-face, virtual/online, or hybrid/blended. Learning leadership is also influenced by environmental context variables such as threats to health and safety, financial and economic losses, political polarization, and cultural characteristics. The paper concludes with examples of how a systems approach can be used to select leadership content followed with examples for prototypical undergraduate, master and doctoral leadership courses.