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This article is the author’s final published version in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 10, October 2021, Article number 139.

The published version is available at Copyright © Zimmaro et al.


Healthcare employees often experience high stress and may benefit from accessible psychosocial interventions. In this pilot study, we explored preliminary feasibility, acceptability, and psychological effects of a telephone-based adaption of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for healthcare employees. Eleven participants (M age = 49.9; 27.3% ethnic/racial minority) were enrolled in an eight-session group-based MBSR program adapted for telephone delivery. Feasibility was assessed using rates of program attrition and session completion; acceptability was explored qualitatively via participants' responses to an open-ended item about their program experience. Participants also completed pre-and post-program assessments on psychosocial outcomes (distress (overall distress, depression, anxiety, somatization), mindfulness, and self-compassion). We characterized mean change scores, 95% confidence intervals, and effect sizes to explore preliminary program effects. With regard to preliminary feasibility, one participant dropped out prior to the intervention; of the remaining 10 participants, 90% completed at least half (≥4) of the sessions; 70% completed at least three-quarters (≥6 sessions). Feedback reflected positive experiences and included suggestions for program delivery. Participants reported reductions in distress post-program (M difference range = -5.0 to -9.4), showing medium to large effect sizes (d range = 0.68 to 1.11). Mindfulness scores increased from pre- to post-intervention (M difference range = 1.0 to 10.4), with small-to-medium effects (d range = 0.18 to 0.55). Almost all aspects of self-compassion remained stable over time, with the exception of common humanity, which increased post-program (M difference = 2.9, CI 95% 0.5 to 5.4, d = 0.91). Preliminary findings from our small pilot trial suggest that telephone-based adaptations of MBSR may be a useful mode of delivery for healthcare employees; however, larger studies are needed to provide further evidence of feasibility, acceptability, and program effects.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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