Neurosurgery hospitalists are closely involved in management of patients that undergo neurosurgery. In this article, we outline and discuss the major aspects of the work of these physicians. We emphasize the crucial role of these physicians in both preoperative and postoperative care as well as their roles in education and research. We also highlight the work of the Farber Hospitalist Service (FHS) for the last 5 year period, and point out the differences between FHS and other neurosurgery hospitalist services nationwide. It is hoped that this article will shed light on the work of neurosurgery hospitalists and help to clarify their roles in patient care.