Low back pain (LBP) is a pervasive problem impacting health systems across the world. In the United States, chronic LBP impacts up to 40% of Americans and results in excessive financial strain on the healthcare budget, estimated at up to $100 billion annually.1 Furthermore, treatment results are often disappointing, with the traditional pathway of conservative measures, narcotic pain medication, and surgical decompression and/or fusion leading to both patient and provider frustration, complications, and diminished patient productivity and quality of life. This has naturally led to questions from policymakers regarding the utility of healthcare dollars spent on back pain. In this milieu, a variety of neuromodulation techniques have found a niche in the management of this patient population, with indications commonly quoted including failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), chronic neuropathic pain, and complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), among others.1,2 From its inception on the basis of Melzak and Wall’s gate theory³, to its first human trial in the 1960s,⁴ and to the modern era, spinal cord stimulation has undergone a series of innovations that have expanded indications and improved patient outcomes. The goal of this study is to summarize the most important clinical trials involving both traditional SCS and newer stimulation paradigms to provide an overview of the current state of affairs of this rapidly-growing field.