Document Type


Publication Date



This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version ineLife, Volume 7, May 2018, Article number e34801.

The published version is available at Copyright © Verderame et al.


The training of PhD students and early-career scientists is largely an apprenticeship in which the trainee associates with an expert to become an independent scientist. But when is a PhD student ready to graduate, a postdoctoral scholar ready for an independent position, or an early-career scientist ready for advanced responsibilities? Research training by apprenticeship does not uniformly include a framework to assess if the trainee is equipped with the complex knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be a successful scientist in the 21st century. To address this problem, we propose competency-based assessment throughout the continuum of training to evaluate more objectively the development of PhD students and early-career scientists. © 2018, Verderame et al.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.