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- Considerable stigma exists toward persons experiencing homelessness (PEH)—a vulnerable population at greater risk for health disparities.1, 2

- Many healthcare students begin their programs without interacting with PEH and with preconceived notions influenced by societal stigma.

- Interprofessional education programs, such as the Enhancing Services for People Experiencing Homelessness program below, have incorporated experiential learning into curricula to address student biases and develop understanding and compassion.

  • Educating students to understand issues that PEH face can help mitigate healthcare disparities.

- Evaluating the effectiveness of these interprofessional educational experiences requires valid assessment of the attitudes, interest, and confidence of students from various professions about working with PEH.

- The Health Professional Attitudes Toward the Homeless Inventory (HPATHI) is frequently used for this purpose, including for ESHP, but has several limitations:

  • Developed with a sample of medical students, overgeneralizing its validity for other health professions
  • Standard-practice psychometric approaches were not used to support its validity.
  • Final solution included several cross-loaded items.

Publication Date



cognitive interviewing, content validity


Interprofessional Education | Medical Education | Medicine and Health Sciences


Presented at the 2023 Jefferson Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education (JCIPE) Conference.

Validation of the Factor Structure of the Health Professionals’ Attitudes Toward the Homeless Inventory (HPATHI)