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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the author’s final published version in World Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 24, Issue 48, December 2018, Pages 5433-5438.

The published version is available at Copyright © Ahmed


Checkpoint inhibitors are increasingly being used in clinical practice. They can cause various gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects. As these side effects can be serious, appropriate management is essential. The different checkpoint inhibitors with their mechanisms of action and indications, as well as evaluation and management of gastrointestinal, hepatic and pancreatic side effects, are discussed in this article.

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License

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