Cardiokines play an essential role in maintaining normal cardiac functions and responding to acute myocardial injury. Studies have demonstrated the heart itself is a significant source of C1q/TNF-related protein 9 (CTRP9). However, the biological role of cardiac-derived CTRP9 remains unclear. We hypothesize cardiac-derived CTRP9 responds to acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury as a cardiokine. We explored the role of cardiac-derived CTRP9 in MI/R injury via genetic manipulation and a CTRP9-knockout (CTRP9-KO) animal model. Inhibition of cardiac CTRP9 exacerbated, whereas its overexpression ameliorated, left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial apoptosis. Endothelial CTRP9 expression was unchanged while cardiomyocyte CTRP9 levels decreased after simulated ischemia/`reperfusion (SI/R) in vitro. Cardiomyocyte CTRP9 overexpression inhibited SI/R-induced apoptosis, an effect abrogated by CTRP9 antibody. Mechanistically, cardiac-derived CTRP9 activated anti-apoptotic signaling pathways and inhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related apoptosis in MI/R injury. Notably, CTRP9 interacted with the ER molecular chaperone calreticulin (CRT) located on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. The CTRP9-CRT interaction activated the protein kinase A-cAMP response element binding protein (PKA-CREB) signaling pathway, blocked by functional neutralization of the autocrine CTRP9. Inhibition of either CRT or PKA blunted cardiac-derived CTRP9's anti-apoptotic actions against MI/R injury. We further confirmed these findings in CTRP9-KO rats. Together, these results demonstrate that autocrine CTRP9 of cardiomyocyte origin protects against MI/R injury via CRT association, activation of the PKA-CREB pathway, ultimately inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Recommended CitationZhao, Dajun; Feng, Pan; Sun, Yang; Qin, Zhigang; Zhang, Zhengbin; Tan, Yanzhen; Gao, Erhe; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xin-Liang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Shiqiang; Xu, Xuezeng; Yi, Dinghua; and Yi, Wei, "Cardiac-derived CTRP9 protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via calreticulin-dependent inhibition of apoptosis." (2018). Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 75.
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