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This is the final published version of the article from the journal Advances in Simulation, volume 3, Article number: 19 (2018).

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Resuscitative hysterotomy is a daunting and rarely performed procedure in the emergency department (ED). Given the paucity of clinical exposure to this intervention, resuscitative hysterotomy is an ideal opportunity for simulation-mediated deliberate practice. The authors propose a novel training program using a homegrown, realistic, simulation device as a means to practice resuscitative hysterotomy. Two high-fidelity, tissue-based task-trainer models were constructed and tested on a convenience sample of 14 emergency medicine (EM) residents. The simulated human placenta, bladder, amniotic sac, and uterus were constructed through the use of porcine skin, porcine stomach, transparent plastic bag, Foley tubing, and squid mantle, all secured with nylon sutures. A Gaumard S500 Articulating Newborn was inserted in the simulated uterus, and the entire model was placed into a Gaumard S500 Childbirth Simulator. Each model required less than 1 h for assembly. Emergent hysterotomy was first demonstrated by an EM faculty facilitator, followed by hands-on deliberate practice. Formal feedback on the learners' self-reported confidence and satisfaction levels was solicited at the end of the workshop through a survey previously cited for use with a low-fidelity resuscitative hysterotomy. Quantitative evaluation of the simulated training session was extracted through a 5-item questionnaire using a 5-point Likert-type scale (i.e., from 1, strongly disagree, to 5, strongly agree). Item scores were added for a cumulative total score, with a possible maximum score of 25 and minimum score of 5. Responses were overwhelmingly positive [24.13 (± 1.36)]. Qualitative feedback was extracted from the survey through open-ended questions; these responses highlighted learners' appreciation for hands-on practice and the development of a novel, tissue-based simulation task trainer. All participants recommended the training session be available to future learners. Resuscitative hysterotomy is a high-stakes, low-frequency procedure that demands provider practice and confidence. Our hybrid, tissue-based hysterotomy model represents a feasible opportunity for training. The model is cost conscious, easily reproducible, and portable and allows for ample deliberate practice.

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