Diabetes mellitus (DM) significantly increases myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. During DM, cardioprotection induced by conventional pre-conditioning (PreCon) is decreased due to impaired AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. The current study investigated whether PreCon with inhaled anesthetic sevoflurane (SF-PreCon) remains cardioprotective during DM, and identified the involved mechanisms. Normal diet (ND) and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced DM mice were randomized into control and SF-PreCon (3 cycles of 15-minute period exposures to 2% sevoflurane) groups before MI/R. SF-PreCon markedly reduced MI/R injury in DM mice, as evidenced by improved cardiac function (increased LVEF and ±Dp/dt), decreased infarct size, and decreased apoptosis. To determine the relevant role of AMPK, the effect of SF-PreCon was determined in cardiac-specific AMPKα2 dominant negative expressing mice (AMPK-DN). SF-PreCon decreased MI/R injury in AMPK-DN mice. To explore the molecular mechanisms responsible for SF-PreCon mediated cardioprotection in DM mice, cell survival molecules were screened. Interestingly, in ND mice, SF-PreCon significantly reduced MI/R-induced activation of p38, a pro-death MAPK, without altering ERK and JNK. In DM and AMPK-DN mice, the inhibitory effect of SF-PreCon upon p38 activation was significantly blunted. However, SF-PreCon significantly increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, a pro-survival MAPK in DM and AMPK-DN mice. We demonstrate that SF-PreCon protects the heart via AMPK-dependent inhibition of pro-death MAPK in ND mice. However, SF-PreCon exerts cardioprotective action via AMPK-independent activation of a pro-survival MAPK member in DM mice. SF-PreCon may be beneficial compared to conventional PreCon in diabetes or clinical scenarios in which AMPK signaling is impaired.
Xie, Dina; Zhao, Jianli; Guo, Rui; Jiao, Liyuan; Zhang, Yanqing; Lau, Wayne Bond; Lopez, Bernard; Christopher, Theodore; Gao, Erhe; Cao, Jimin; Ma, Xin-Liang; and Wang, Yajing, "Sevoflurane Pre-conditioning Ameliorates Diabetic Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Via Differential Regulation of p38 and ERK." (2020). Department of Emergency Medicine Faculty Papers. Paper 100.
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