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This article is the author's final published version in Medicina (Lithuania), Volume 57, Issue 9, September 2021, Article number 925.

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Copyright © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (


Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a cutaneous adverse drug reaction characterized by the onset of rash at a fixed location on the body each time a specific medication is ingested. With each recurrence, the eruption can involve additional sites. Lesions can have overlying vesicles and/or bullae, and when they cover a significant percentage of body surface area, the eruption is referred to as generalized bullous fixed drug eruption (GBFDE). Due to the widespread skin denudation that can be seen in this condition, GBFDE may be confused clinically with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). While treatments described for GBFDE include supportive care, topical and/or systemic steroids, and, recently, cyclosporine, the mainstay of management involves identifying and discontinuing the causative drug. This review article will provide an overview of FDE with an emphasis on its generalized bullous variant.

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