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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Journal of Anesthesia.

December 2013

The published version is available at PMID: 24337890. Copyright © Springer


PURPOSE: Sevoflurane increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Emerging evidence suggests that autophagy is involved in cardioprotection. We examined whether reactive oxygen species mediate sevoflurane preconditioning through autophagy.

METHODS: Isolated guinea pigs hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion (control). Anesthetic preconditioning was elicited with 2 % sevoflurane for 10 min before ischemia (SEVO). The ROS-scavenger, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (MPG, 1 mmol/l), was administered starting 30 min before ischemia to sevoflurane-treated (SEVO + MPG) or non-sevoflurane-treated (MPG) hearts. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride stain. Tissue samples were obtained after reperfusion to determine autophagy-related protein (microtubule-associated protein light chain I and II: LC3-I, -II) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression using Western blot analysis. Electron microscopy was used to detect autophagosomes.

RESULTS: Infarct size was significantly reduced and there were more abundant autophagosomes in SEVO compared with control. Western blot analysis revealed that the ratio of LC3-II/I and phosphorylation of AMPK were significantly increased in SEVO. These effects were abolished by MPG.

CONCLUSIONS: Sevoflurane induces cardioprotection through ROS-mediated upregulation of autophagy.

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