Document Type


Publication Date



This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in European Journal of Pharmacology

Volume 675, Issue 1-3, 30 January 2012, Pages 40-46.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.11.040. Copyright © Elsevier Inc.


To assess whether sevoflurane preconditioning is associated with inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), the effects of sevoflurane were compared with those of cyclosporine A, a known inhibitor of MPTP opening. Isolated perfused guinea pig hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion (control). Sevoflurane preconditioning was elicited by administration of 2% sevoflurane for 10 min with 10 min washout before ischemia (sevoflurane). A preconditioning-like cardioprotection was also induced by administering cyclosporine A (0.2 μM) for 15 min, starting 5 min before ischemia and for 10 min after the onset of reperfusion (cyclosporine A). Left ventricular developed and end-diastolic pressures, coronary flow and infarct size were measured. Expressions of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), known mediators of inhibition of MPTP opening, were determined by Western blot analysis. GSK3β inhibition was achieved with LY294002. The effects of sevoflurane and cyclosporine A on calcium-induced MPTP opening in isolated calcein-loaded mitochondria were assessed. After ischemia-reperfusion, sevoflurane and cyclosporine A had higher left ventricular developed pressure. Infarct size was significantly reduced in sevoflurane and cyclosporine A vs. control. This was abolished by LY294002 in sevoflurane, but not in cyclosporine A. Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation after reperfusion were significantly increased in sevoflurane and cyclosporine A. Ca²⁺-induced reduction in calcein fluorescence was significantly attenuated in sevoflurane and cyclosporine A. Preconditioning agents, sevoflurane and cyclosporine A increase the threshold of calcium-induced MPTP opening to a similar extent. This effect by sevoflurane, but not cyclosporine A is at least partially mediated by GSK3β inactivation.

Fig1-for proof .pdf (54 kB)
Figure 1

Fig2 .pdf (14 kB)
Figure 2

Fig3 .pdf (79 kB)
Figure 3

Fig4-1 .pdf (96 kB)
Figure 4-1

table-1 .pdf (95 kB)
Table 1

PubMed ID


Included in

Cardiology Commons