TLR2 promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation via an early MyD88-IRAK1-dependent pathway that provides a priming signal (signal 1) necessary for activation of the inflammasome by a second potassium-depleting signal (signal 2). Here we show that TLR3 binding to dsRNA promotes post-translational inflammasome activation through intermediate and late TRIF/RIPK1/FADD-dependent pathways. Both pathways require the scaffolding but not the catalytic function of caspase-8 or RIPK1. Only the late pathway requires kinase competent RIPK3 and MLKL function. Mechanistically, FADD/caspase-8 scaffolding function provides a post-translational signal 1 in the intermediate pathway, whereas in the late pathway it helps the oligomerization of RIPK3, which together with MLKL provides both signal 1 and 2 for inflammasome assembly. Cytoplasmic dsRNA activates NLRP3 independent of TRIF, RIPK1, RIPK3 or mitochondrial DRP1, but requires FADD/caspase-8 in wildtype macrophages to remove RIPK3 inhibition. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of pathways that lead to NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to dsRNA.
Recommended CitationKang, Seokwon; Fernandes-Alnemri, Teresa; Rogers, Corey; Mayes, Lindsey; Wang, Ying; Dillon, Christopher; Roback, Linda; Kaiser, William; Oberst, Andrew; Sagara, Junji; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Green, Douglas R; Zhang, Jianke; Mocarski, Edward S; and Alnemri, Emad S, "Caspase-8 scaffolding function and MLKL regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation downstream of TLR3." (2015). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers. Paper 89.