Heterotrimeric G proteins (αβγ) function at the cytoplasmic surface of a cell's plasma membrane to transduce extracellular signals into cellular responses. However, numerous studies indicate that G proteins also play noncanonical roles at unique intracellular locations. Previous work has established that G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) regulate a signaling pathway on the cytoplasmic surface of Golgi membranes that controls the exit of select protein cargo. Now, we demonstrate a novel role for Gβγ in regulating mitotic Golgi fragmentation, a key checkpoint of the cell cycle that occurs in the late G2 phase. We show that small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Gβ1 and Gβ2 in synchronized cells causes a decrease in the number of cells with fragmented Golgi in late G2 and a delay of entry into mitosis and progression through G2/M. We also demonstrate that during G2/M Gβγ acts upstream of protein kinase D and regulates the phosphorylation of the Golgi structural protein GRASP55. Expression of Golgi-targeted GRK2ct, a Gβγ-sequestering protein used to inhibit Gβγ signaling, also causes a decrease in Golgi fragmentation and a delay in mitotic progression. These results highlight a novel role for Gβγ in regulation of Golgi structure.
Rajanala, Kalpana; Klayman, Lauren M.; and Wedegaertner, Philip B., "Gβγ regulates mitotic Golgi fragmentation and G2/M cell cycle progression." (2021). Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers. Paper 196.
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