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Total hip and knee replacement surgery are one of the most frequent major surgeries performed in the USA. In 2002, the number of primary hip and knee arthroplasty was 119,000 and 381,000, respectively. By year 2030 the number is projected to increase to 572,000 and 3,481,000 respectively.

Deep wound infection after major orthopedic surgery is one of the most serious complications causing increase in morbidity and mortality and health care costs. Various risk factors for developing infection after hip and knee replacement surgery were described including age, ASA PS status, obesity, patients' comorbidities and surgical technique factors.

Perioperative hyperglycemia may increase the risk for infection after the surgery, but it is unknown if increases the risk after major orthopedic surgery.

We investigated whether high blood glucose increases a risk for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total hip and knee arthroplasty.