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This is the final published article from the American Journal of Case Reports, 2022; 23: e934943-1–e934943-6.

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BACKGROUND Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome that results from skeletal muscle breakdown and the release of intracellular enzymes into systemic circulation [1,2]. We present a case of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis with transaminitis, without myoglobinuria or acute kidney injury. Cases reports of rhabdomyolysis with elevation of serum creatine kinase (hyperCKemia) in the absence of myoglobinuria or renal failure are limited in the literature.

CASE REPORT A 21-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department following an acute psychotic episode. One week earlier, his bloodwork had been within normal limits. Biochemical investigations on admission revealed hyperCKemia (590 000 U/L), transaminitis (AST, 628; ALT, 160), and normal creatinine (0.83), without myoglobinuria. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis was suspected, and the patient was treated with aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation and transferred to Inpatient Psychiatry on day 10 of hospitalization. The complete metabolic panel was trended daily, without indication of kidney injury. The creatine kinase (CK) and liver function tests trended downward.

CONCLUSIONS This report presents a rare case of exertional rhabdomyolysis with CK levels nearly 3000 times the upper limit of normal, without myoglobinuria or acute kidney injury. Acute kidney injury is a dangerous complication of rhabdomyolysis. Traditionally, clinicians use serum CK levels to predict the likelihood of acute kidney injury and/or renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. Ultimately, this patient was diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis with hyperCKemia and transaminitis without myoglobinuria or acute kidney injury. More research is needed to elucidate the protective patient characteristics against rhabdomyolysis-associated acute kidney injury, associations between CK and myoglobinuria, and diagnostic criteria for psychosis-associated hyperCKemia.

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