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This article is the author's final published version in Annals of Medicine and Surgery, Volume 66, May 2021, Article number 102387.

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Background: Patients with acute decompensated heart failure are prone to recurrent exacerbation leading to poor quality of life when they do not respond to an optimal medical regimen. Due to the lack of linear positive inotropy response to increasing preload in heart failure patients, increasing preload is associated with poor outcomes. Partial occlusion of either IVC or SVC is a proposed novel treatment that can improve cardiac function or quality of life by altering preload/pressure in heart failure (HF) patients unresponsive to diuretics.

Methods: PubMed, Ovid (MEDLINE), and Cochrane database we searched using the MeSH terms including "Superior vena cava occlusion," "Inferior vena cava occlusion," "Heart failure exacerbation." The inclusion criteria included studies that enrolled patients > 18 years with diagnosed NYHA II-IV HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) on optimal medical treatment (OMT).

Results: The analysis involved two studies with 14 patients; the mean age was 64.4 ± 10 and 100% males. The difference in the mean pulmonary pressures between pre-and-post VCO devices were 1.56 (95% CI 0.66-2.46, p-value = 0.006). There was no heterogeneity among the study of mean pulmonary pressures. With the use of VC occlusion devices, the mean difference in pulmonary artery systolic pressure decreased by 1.70 (95% CI 0.68-2.71, p-value = 0.001) (Fig. 1B). The heterogeneity of mean pressure was minimal 14%.

Conclusion: In conclusion, VCO can help decrease pulmonary pressure that can indirectly prevent heart failure exacerbations and possibly hospitalization in this cohort of patients.

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