Gitelman syndrome is one of the few inherited causes of metabolic alkalosis due to salt losing tubulopathy. It is caused by tubular defects at the level of distal convoluted tubules, mimicking a thiazide-like tumor. It usually presents in late childhood or in teenage as nonspecific weakness, fatigability, polyuria, and polydipsia but very rarely with seizures. It is classically associated with hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, hyperreninemia, and hyperaldosteronism. However, less frequently, it can present with normal magnesium levels. It is even rarer to find normomagnesemic patients of GS who develop seizures as the main complication since hypomagnesemia is considered the principal etiology of abnormal foci of seizure-related brain activity in GS cases. Interestingly, patients with GS are oftentimes diagnosed during pregnancy when the classic electrolyte pattern consistent with GS is noticed. Our case presents GS with normal serum magnesium in a patient, with seizures being the main clinical presentation. We also did a comprehensive literature review of 122 reported cases to show the prevalence of normal magnesium in GS cases and an overview of clinical and biochemical variability in GS. We suggest that further studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the pathophysiology of seizures in GS patients with both normal and low magnesium levels.
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Recommended CitationShahzad, Muhammad Asim; Mukhtar, Maryam; Ahmed, Asrar; Ullah, Waqas; Saeed, Rehan; and Hamid, Mohsin, "Gitelman Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Seizure Disorder and a Systematic Review." (2019). Abington Jefferson Health Papers. Paper 10.