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This article has been peer reviewed. It is the authors' final version prior to publication in Neurosurgery Clinics of North America, Volume 26, Issue 2, April 2015, Pages 239-243.

The published version is available at DOI: 10.1016/ Copyright © Elsevier


Improving the quality and efficiency of surgical techniques, reducing technical errors in the operating suite, and ultimately improving patient safety and outcomes through education are common goals in all surgical specialties. Current surgical simulation programs represent an effort to enhance and optimize the training experience, to overcome the training limitations of a mandated 80-hour work week, and have the overall goal of providing a well-balanced resident education in a society with a decreasing level of tolerance for medical errors.

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