Authors

Lorenzo Galluzzi, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
Erika Vacchelli, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
José-Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
Aitziber Buqué, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
Laura Senovilla, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
Elisa Elena Baracco, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Faculté de Medicine, Université Paris Sud/Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
Norma Bloy, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Faculté de Medicine, Université Paris Sud/Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
Francesca Castoldi, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Faculté de Medicine, Université Paris Sud/Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic.
Jean-Pierre Abastado, Pole d'innovation thérapeutique en oncologie, Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Suresnes, France.
Patrizia Agostinis, Cell Death Research and Therapy (CDRT) Laboratory, Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Ron N Apte, The Shraga Segal Dept. of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Fernando Aranda, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Group of Immune receptors of the Innate and Adaptive System, Institut d'Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
Maha Ayyoub, INSERM, U1102, Saint Herblain, France. Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest, Saint Herblain, France.
Philipp Beckhove, Translational Immunology Division, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
Jean-Yves Blay, Equipe 11, Centre Léon Bérard (CLR), Lyon, France. Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, France.
Laura Bracci, Dept. of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
Anne Caignard, INSERM, U1160, Paris, France. Groupe Hospitalier Saint Louis-Lariboisière - F. Vidal, Paris, France.
Chiara Castelli, Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors, Dept. of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.
Federica Cavallo, Molecular Biotechnology Center, Dept. of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
Estaban Celis, Cancer Immunology, Inflammation and Tolerance Program, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Augusta, GA, USA.
Vincenzo Cerundolo, MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
Aled Clayton, Institute of Cancer & Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, UK.
Mario P Colombo, Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors, Dept. of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.
Lisa Coussens, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
Madhav V Dhodapkar, Sect. of Hematology and Immunobiology, Yale Cancer Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
Alexander M Eggermont, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
Douglas T Fearon, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA.
Wolf H Fridman, INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Université Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI, Paris, France. Equipe 13, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
Jitka Fučíková, Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic. Dept. of Immunology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Jérôme Galon, INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Université Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI, Paris, France. Laboratory of Integrative Cancer Immunology, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
Abhishek Garg, Cell Death Research and Therapy (CDRT) Laboratory, Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
François Ghiringhelli, INSERM, UMR866, Dijon, France. Centre Georges François Leclerc, Dijon, France. Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
Giuseppe Giaccone, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA. Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
Eli Gilboa, Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
Sacha Gnjatic, Sect. of Hematology/Oncology, Immunology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
Axel Hoos, Glaxo Smith Kline, Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium, Collegeville, PA, USA.
Anne Hosmalin, Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. INSERM, U1016, Paris, France. CNRS, UMR8104, Paris, France. Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris, France.
Dirk Jäger, National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Medical Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Pawel Kalinski, Dept. of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Dept. of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Klas Kärre, Dept. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Oliver Kepp, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
Rolf Kiessling, Dept. of Oncology, Karolinska Institute Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
John M Kirkwood, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Eva Klein, Dept. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Alexander Knuth, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
Claire E Lewis, Academic Unit of Inflammation and Tumour Targeting, Dept. of Oncology, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK.
Roland Liblau, INSERM, UMR1043, Toulouse, France. CNRS, UMR5282, Toulouse, France. Laboratoire d'Immunologie, CHU Toulouse, Université Toulouse II, Toulouse, France.
Michael T Lotze, Dept. of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Enrico Lugli, Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy.
Jean-Pierre Mach, Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland.
Fabrizio Mattei, Dept. of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
Domenico Mavilio, Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy. Dept. of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Rozzano, Italy.
Ignacio Melero, Dept. of Immunology, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada (CIMA), Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Dept. of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
Cornelis J Melief, ISA Therapeutics, Leiden, The Netherlands. Dept. of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Elizabeth A Mittendorf, Research Dept. of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
Lorenzo Moretta, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.
Adekunke Odunsi, Center for Immunotherapy, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA.
Hideho Okada, Dept. of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Anna Karolina Palucka, The Jackson Laboratory for Genomics Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA.
Marcus E Peter, Div. of Hematology/Oncology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
Kenneth J Pienta, The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Angel Porgador, The Shraga Segal Dept. of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
George C Prendergast, Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA, USA. Dept. of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Cell Biology and Signaling Program, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Gabriel A Rabinovich, Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Nicholas P Restifo, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
Naiyer Rizvi, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY, USA.
Catherine Sautès-Fridman, INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Université Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI, Paris, France. Equipe 13, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
Hans Schreiber, Dept. of Pathology, The Cancer Research Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Barbara Seliger, Institute of Medical Immunology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.
Hiroshi Shiku, Dept. of Immuno-GeneTherapy, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan.
Bruno Silva-Santos, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
Mark J Smyth, Immunology in Cancer and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia. School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia.
Daniel E Speiser, Dept. of Oncology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Ludwig Cancer Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Radek Spisek, Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic. Dept. of Immunology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
Pramod K Srivastava, Dept. of Immunology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA. Carole and Ray Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center, Farmington, CT, USA.
James E Talmadge, Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, Dept. of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.
Eric Tartour, Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. INSERM, U970, Paris, France. Paris-Cardiovascular Research Center (PARCC), Paris, France. Service d'Immunologie Biologique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), AP-HP, Paris, France.
Sjoerd H Van Der Burg, Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Benoît J Van Den Eynde, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels, Belgium. de Duve Institute, Brussels, Belgium. Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
Richard Vile, Dept. of Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
Hermann Wagner, Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.
Jeffrey S Weber, Donald A. Adam Comprehensive Melanoma Research Center, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.
Theresa L Whiteside, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
Jedd D Wolchok, Dept. of Medicine and Ludwig Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
Laurence Zitvogel, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. INSERM, U1015, Villejuif, France. Centre d'Investigation Clinique Biothérapie 507 (CICBT507), Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
Weiping Zou, University of Michigan, School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Guido Kroemer, Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Pôle de Biologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), AP-HP, Paris, France.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

12-30-2014

Comments

This article has been peer reviewed. It was published in: Oncotarget.

Volume 5, Issue 24, 2014, Pages 12472-12508.

The published version is available at PMID: 25537519

Copyright © 2014 the authors

Abstract

During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.

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